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Bibliography

Bibliography of Articles on VIX, and Volatility and Variance Swaps

(with some excerpts)

  • Sears, Steve. "Making the Most of Volatility" Barron's. (May 25, 2013).

  • Antognelli, Ferreira, McArdle, and Traub. "Fear and Greed in Global Asset Allocation." The Journal of Investing. (Spring 2000), pp. 27—32. VIX "is a good indicator of the level of fear or greed in U.S. and global capital markets. When investors are fearful, the VIX level is significantly higher than normal. Market participants require additional compensation in the form of above-average excess returns for riskier assets. Using implied volatility as an asset allocation factor would have added significant value over the last thirteen years."

  • Arak, Marcelle, and Naranchimeg Mijid. The VIX and VXN Volatility Measures: Fear Gauges or Forecasts? Derivatives Use, Trading & Regulation. 12 (1):14-27. (2006).

  • Arvedlund, Erin. "Calm Before the Storm? Low Volatility Often Precedes Market Downturn." Barron's Jan. 28, 2002.

  • Bakshi, Gurdip S. and Madan, Dilip, "Spanning and Derivative-Security Valuation", Journal of Financial Economics 55 (2) 2000, 205—238.

  • Baldeaux, Jan and Alexander Badran. Consistent Modelling of VIX and Equity Derivatives Using a 3/2 Plus Jumps Model. Applied Mathematical Finance. (2014).

  • Becker, Ralf, Adam E. Clements and Andrew McClelland. "The Jump Component of S&P 500 Volatility and the VIX Index." Journal of Banking & Finance, Volume 33, Issue 6, (June 2009) pages 1033-1038.

  • Bekaerta, Geert; Marie Hoerovab; and Marco Lo Ducab. Risk, Uncertainty and Monetary Policy. Journal of Monetary Economics. Volume 60, Issue 7, Pages 771-788, (October 2013).

  • Black, Fischer and Scholes, Myron, "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities", Journal of Political Economy, (1973) 81:637—654.

  • Black, Keith H. How the VIX Ate My Kurtosis." Presentation at the January 27, 2005 Meeting of the Chicago QWAFAFEW Group.

  • Black, Keith H. "Improving Hedge Fund Risk Exposures by Hedging Equity Market Volatility, or How the VIX Ate My Kurtosis." The Journal of Trading. (Spring 2006).

  • BlackRock. VIX Your Portfolio - Selling Volatility to Improve Performance (June 2013).

  • Breeden, D. and R Litzenberger, 1978, "Prices of State Contingent Claims Implicit in Option Prices:, Journal of Business, 51, 621—651.

  • Brenner, M., and D. Galai, 1989, "New Financial Instruments for Hedging Changes in Volatility", Financial Analyst's Journal, July—August 1989, 61—65.

  • Brenner, M., and D. Galai, 1993, "Hedging Volatility in Foreign Currencies", The Journal of Derivatives , Fall 1993, 53—9.

  • Brenner, M., and D. Galai, 1996, "Options on Volatility", Chapter 13 of Option Embedded Bonds , I. Nelken, ed. 273—286.

  • Brenner, M., E. Ou, and J. Zhang, 2001, "Hedging Volatility Risk", NYU working paper.

  • Brière, M., Burgues, A. and Signori, O., "Volatility Exposure for Strategic Asset Allocation", Journal of Portfolio Management, Spring 2010, Vol. 36 (3), 105-116.

  • Brockhaus, O., and D. Long, 1999, "Volatility Swaps Made Simple", Risk, 1, 92—95.

  • Carr, P. and D. Madan, 1998, "Towards a Theory of Volatility Trading", Volatility, Risk Publications, R. Jarrow, e., 417—427

  • Carr, P. and K. Lewis, 2002, "Corridor Variance Contracts", NYU working paper.

  • Ceron, Gaston F. "Options Volatility Rises, With VIX up 8.6%; Traders Focus on IBM Ahead of Earnings News" Wall Street Journal (Jan. 22, 1999) pC13.

  • Cherney, Nick, William Lloyd, and Geremy Kawaller. "Portfolio Applications for VIX-Based Instruments." Journal of Indexes. (Nov. - Dec. 2011), pp. 32 - 48.

  • Chriss, N., and W. Morokoff, 1999, "Market Risk for Volatility and Variance Swaps", Risk, July.

  • Chung, S.-L., Tsai, W.-C., Wang, Y.-H. and Weng, P.-S. The Information Content of the S&P 500 index and VIX Options on the Dynamics of the S&P 500 index. Journal of Futures Markets (2011).

  • Connors, Larry. "A Volatile Idea." Futures (Jul 1999): p. 36—37. "Many indicators such as the advance/decline line, put/call ratios and the Trin (the advance/decline ratio divided by advancing/declining volume ratio), are used by traders to measure market sentiment. However, the best one available to capture the pulse of the market is the VIX ® Extreme VIX readings and reversals often signal quick reversals in the stock market, making it an effective tool for short-term S&P 500 stock index futures strategies."

  • Connors, Larry. "Timing Your S&P Trades with the VIX." Futures (Jun 2002): pp. 46—47.

  • Copeland, Maggie. "Market Timing: Style and Size Rotation Using the VIX." Financial Analysts Journal, (Mar/Apr 1999); pp. 73—82. "Changes in the Market Volatility Index (VIX) of the Chicago Board Options Exchange are statistically significant leading indicators of daily market returns. " The implication is that market timing may be feasible–at least for portfolio yield enhancement."

  • Credit Suisse. "Can the VIX Signal Market Direction?" (Dec. 20, 2006).

  • Daigler, Robert T., and Laura Rossi. "A Portfolio of Stocks and Volatility." The Journal of Investing. (Summer 2006).

  • Daouk, H. and J. Guo, 2002,"Switching Asymmetric GARCH and Options on a Volatility Index", Cornell University working paper.

  • Dash, Srikant, and Matthew T. Moran, "VIX as a Companion for Hedge Fund Portfolios." The Journal of Alternative Investments. (Winter 2005).

  • Duan, Jin-Chuan and Yeh, Chung-Ying. Price and Volatility Dynamics Implied by the VIX Term Structure (June 07, 2011).

  • Demeterfi, K., E. Derman, M. Kamal, J. Zhou, 1999, Risk, "A Guide to Variance Swaps", 4, 9—32.

  • Demeterfi, K., E. Derman, M. Kamal, J.Zhou, 1999, "A Guide to Volatility and Variance Swaps", The Journal of Derivatives, 6,4,9—32.

  • Demeterfi, K., E.Derman, M. Kamal J. Zhou, 1999, "More than You Ever Wanted to Know about Volatility Swaps," March 1999, Goldman Sachs Quantitative Strategies Research Notes.

  • Derman, E., M. Kama, I. Kani, and J.Zou, 1996, "Valuing Contracts with Payoffs Based on Realized Volatility," Global Derivatives Quarterly Review, Equity Derivatives Research, Goldman, Sachs & Co.

  • Detemple J. and C. Osakwe, 2000, "The Valuation of Volatility Options", European Finance Review.

  • Dotsis, G., Psychoyios, D., and Skiadopoulos, G. "An Empirical Comparison of Continuous-Time Models of Implied Volatility Indices", Journal of Banking and Finance, 31:12, (2007) pp. 3584-3603.

  • Dupire, Bruno. "Arbitrage Pricing with Stochastic Volatility," Banque Paribas Swaps and Options Research Team Monograph, May 1993.

  • Dupoyet, Brice, Robert T. Daigler and Zhiyao Chen. A Simplified Pricing Model for Volatility Futures. Journal of Futures Markets (April 2011), pp. 307-339.

  • Fleming, J., B. Ostdiek, and R. Whaley, 1993, "Predicting Stock Market Volatility: A New Measure", Duke University working paper.

  • Galai, D., 1979, "A Proposal for Indexes for Traded Call Options", Journal of Finance, XXXIV, 5, 1157—72.

  • Gastineau, G., 1977, "An Index of Listed Option Premiums", Financial Analyst's Journal , May-June 1977.

  • Goard, Joanna, and Mathew Mazur. Stochastic Volatility Models and the Pricing of VIX Options. Mathematical Finance. Volume 23, Issue 3, pages 439-458 (July 2013).

  • Goodella, John and Sami Vähämaab. US Presidential Elections and Implied Volatility: The Role of Political Uncertainty. Journal of Banking & Finance. Volume 37, Issue 3, Pages 1108-1117, (March 2013).

  • Grunbichler A., and F. Longstaff, 1993, "Valuing Options on Volatility", UCLA working paper.

  • Heston S., and S. Nandi, 2000, "Derivatives on Volatility: Some Simple Solutions Based on Observables'', Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Working paper.

  • Hill, Joanne. "Index Volatility in Perspective." The Journal of Index Investing (Summer 2010), pp. 12 - 23.

  • Hill, Joanne and Sandy Rattray. "Volatility as a Tradable Asset: Using the VIX(r) as a Market Signal, Diversifier and for Return Enhancement." Presentation at the March 25, 2004 Meeting of the Chicago QWAFAFEW Group. www.qwafafew.org/chicago/handouts/hillmar2004.pdf

  • Howison, S., A. Rafailidis, and H. Rasmussen, 2002, "A Note on the Pricing and Hedging of Volatility Derivatives", Oxford University working paper.

  • Javaheri A., P. Wilmott, and E. Haug, 2002, "GARCH and Volatility Swaps", working paper, www.wilmott.com

  • Konstantinidi, E., Skiadopoulos, G., and Tzagkaraki, E. "Can the Evolution of Implied Volatility be Forecasted? Evidence from European and US Implied Volatility Indices", Journal of Banking and Finance, 32:11, (2008) pp. 2401-2411.

  • Kozyraa, James, and Camillo Lentoa. Using VIX Data to Enhance Technical Trading Signals. Applied Economics Letters. Volume 18, Issue 14, pp. 1367-1370 (2011).

  • Kuenzi, David E. October 2005, "Variance Swaps and Non-Constant Vega." Risk, pp. 79—84.

  • Lauricella, Tom and Aaron Lucchetti. "What's Behind the Surge In the VIX 'Fear' Index?" Wall Street Journal (Oct 23, 2008) pg. C1.

  • Lian, Guang-Hua, and Song-Ping Zhu. Pricing VIX Options with Stochastic Volatility and Random Jumps. Decisions in Economics and Finance, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 71-88 (May 2013).

  • Lin, Yueh-Neng. "Pricing VIX Futures: Evidence From Integrated Physical And Risk-Neutral Probability Measures." Journal of Futures Markets (2007), vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 1175-1217.

  • Liu, Berlinda and Srikant Dash. "Volatility ETFs and ETNs." The Journal of Trading (Winter 2012), pp. 1 - 6.

  • McEwan, Ronald. "Getting your S&P Fix with the VIX." Futures (Jun 2004): pp. 46—48.

  • McMillan, Lawrence. "Modern Portfolio Protection" Barron's. (July 9, 2007).

  • Moran, Matthew T. "Thirty Volatility Indexes: Worldwide Tools to Gauge Sentiment and Diversify Portfolios." Journal of Index Investing. Vol. 4, No. 4: pp. 69-87 (Spring 2014).

  • Moran, Matthew T., "Review of the VIX Index and VIX Futures.," Journal of Indexes, October/November 2004. pp. 16 — 19 www.journalofindexes.com

  • Moran, Matthew T. and Srikant Dash. "VIX Futures and Options: Pricing and Using Volatility Products to Manage Downside Risk and Improve Efficiency in Equity Portfolios." The Journal of Trading. (Summer 2007) pp. 96 - 105.

  • Natenberg, Sheldon. Option Volatility Trading Strategies. 176 pages. (2013).

  • Nelken, Izzy. "From Log Contracts to the CBOE's New VIX Index–How a Completely Theoretical Idea Turned Into a Very Practical Tool." Presentation at the March 25, 2004 Meeting of the Chicago QWAFAFEW Group. www.qwafafew.org/chicago/handouts/nelkenmar2004.pdf

  • Neuberger, A. 1990, "Volatility Trading", London Business School working paper.

  • Neuberger, A. Winter 1994, "The Log Contract", The Journal of Portfolio Management, Winter 1994.

  • Nossman, Marcus and Anders Wilhelmsson. Is the VIX Futures Market Able to Predict the VIX Index? A Test of the Expectation Hypothesis. The Journal of Alternative Investments Vol. 12, No. 2: pp. 54-67 (Fall 2009).

  • Psychoyios, D., and Skiadopoulos, G. (2006): "Volatility Options: Hedging Effectiveness, Pricing, and Model Error." Journal of Futures Markets, 26:1,pp. 1—31.

  • Rhoads, Russell. Trading VIX Derivatives: Trading and Hedging Strategies Using VIX Futures, Options, and Exchange Traded Notes (2011).

  • S&P Dow Jones Indices. "Access to Volatility Via Listed Futures." November 2011

  • Sears, Steven. BlackRock: Volatility Is an Asset, Barron's. (July 6, 2013).

  • Sepp, Artur. VIX Option Pricing in a Jump-Diffusion Model Risk Magazine, pp. 84-89, April 2008.

  • Shu, J. and Zhang, J. E. (2011), Causality in the VIX Futures Market. Journal of Futures Markets (2011).

  • Shu, Jinghong, and Jin E. Zhang. Causality in the VIX Futures Market. Journal of Futures Markets. Volume 32, Issue 1, pages 24-46, (January 2012).

  • Skiadopoulos, G. (2004): "The Greek Implied Volatility Index: Construction and Properties." Applied Financial Economics, 14:16, pp. 1187—1196.

  • Spence, John. "Investing in the VIX could protect your portfolio in volatile markets." Marketwatch.com (July 14, 2009).

  • Sulima, Cheryl. "Volatility and Variance Swaps", Capital Market News, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. (March 2001)

  • Szado, Edward. "VIX Futures and Options: A Case Study of Portfolio Diversification During the 2008 Financial Crisis." The Journal of Alternative Investments (Fall 2009) pp. 68 - 85.

  • Tan, Kopin. "The ABCs of VIX." Barron's (Mar 15, 2004): p. MW16.

  • Tan, Kopin. "The Future of Fear–CBOE Plans Trading on its Volatility Index." Barron's. (Sept. 8, 2003).

  • Tan, Kopin. "Volatility Index Continues Climb, Closes at Highest Level in 14 Years" Wall Street Journal, (Jul 24, 2002); pg. C.11.

  • Tracy, Tennille. "Index of Volatility Reflects Traders' Continued Caution." Wall Street Journal. (Oct 15, 2008) pg. C6.

  • Tracy, Tennille. "Trading Soars on Financials As Volatility Index Hits Record." Wall Street Journal. (Sep 30, 2008) pg. C6.

  • University of Massachusetts. "VIX Futures and Options—A Case Study of Portfolio Diversification During the 2008 Financial Crisis" (June 2009).

  • Wang, Zhiguang, and Robert T. Daigler. The Performance of VIX Option Pricing Models: Empirical Evidence Beyond Simulation. Journal of Futures Markets (March 2011) pp. 251-281.

  • Whaley, Robert E.,1993, "Derivatives on Market Volatility: Hedging Tools Long Overdue," Journal of Derivatives 1 (Fall 1993), pp. 71—84.

  • Whaley, Robert E., "The Investor Fear Gauge," Journal of Portfolio Management 26, pp. 12—17. (2000)

  • Whaley, Robert E. "Understanding the VIX." The Journal of Portfolio Management (Spring 2009).

  • Whaley, Robert E. "Understanding VIX." (2008) pp. 98 - 105.

  • Windcliff, H., P.A. Forsyth and K.R. Vetzal, 2003, "Pricing Methods and Hedging Strategies for Volatility Derivatives," University of Waterloo working paper.

  • Yang, Ming Jing. The Forecasting Power of the Volatility Index in Emerging Markets: Evidence from the Taiwan Stock Market. International Journal of Economics and Finance Vol. 4, No. 2; pp. 217 - 231 (February 2012).



Links for More Information and Reports

Benchmark Indexes (BXM, PUT, etc.) and Key Papers
Bibliography of Articles on BuyWrites and Other Options Strategies
Third-party Research Reports






Futures and options on the CBOE’s volatility indexes have several UNIQUE FEATURES that distinguish them from most equity and index options, and investors are strongly ENCOURAGED TO CLOSELY READ AND UNDERSTAND THE VIX OPTIONS FAQ at http://www.cboe.com/micro/vix/vixoptionsfaq.aspx and other informational materials before investing. CBOE®, Chicago Board Options Exchange®, CBOE Volatility Index®, and VIX® are registered trademarks of Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated (CBOE). BXM, BXD, BXN, BXR, BXY, VXD, VXN, RVX and SPX are service marks of CBOE. CFESM is a service mark of CBOE Futures Exchange, LLC. Dow Jones®, DJIA®, and Dow Jones Industrial AverageSM are trademarks of Dow Jones & Company, Inc. and have been licensed for use for certain purposes by CBOE. CBOE's Options on the Dow based on the Dow Jones indexes and financial products based on the CBOE DJIA BuyWrite Index and the CBOE DJIA Volatility Index are not sponsored, endorsed, marketed or promoted by Dow Jones and Dow Jones makes no representations regarding the advisability of investing in such products. S&P®and S&P 500® are registered trademarks of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. and are licensed for use by CBOE. The Russell 2000® Index is a registered trademark of The Frank Russell Company, used under license. Nasdaq®, Nasdaq-100® and Nasdaq-100 Index are trademarks of The Nasdaq Stock Market, Inc. (with which its affiliates are the "Corporations"). The CBOE Nasdaq-100 BuyWrite Index, and the CBOE Nasdaq-100 Volatility Index ("Indexes") are not derived, maintained, published, calculated or disseminated by the Corporations. Neither the Indexes nor any Derivative Product based on the Indexes has been passed on by the Corporations as to its legality or suitability. Such Derivative Products are not issued, endorsed, sold, sponsored, marketed or promoted by the Corporations. The Corporations make no warranties and bear no liability with respect to the Indexes. The methodologies of the CBOE BuyWrite Indexes and the CBOE Volatility Indexes are owned by CBOE and may be covered by one or more patents or pending patent applications. CBOE's BuyWrite Indexes are designed to represent a proposed hypothetical buy-write strategy. Supporting documentation for claims, comparisons, recommendations, statistics or other technical data is available by calling 1-888-OPTIONS, sending an e-mail to institutional@cboe.com, or by visiting www.cboe.com. This document contains comparisons, assertions, and conclusions regarding the performance of index based on backtesting, i.e., calculations of how the index might have performed in the past if it had existed. Backtested performance information is purely hypothetical and is provided in this document solely for informational purposes. Backtested performance does not represent actual performance, and should not be interpreted as an indication of actual performance. Past performance does not guarantee future results. The methodology of the CBOE Volatility Index is owned by CBOE and may be covered by one or more patents or pending patent applications.




CBOE Volatility Index (VIX)